The Complexities of Merging Academies into a Multi-Academy Trust

In News by Olivia Johnson

The concept of academies and multi-academy trusts (MATs) is a transformative and increasingly prevalent feature of the educational landscape in the United Kingdom. As schools face pressure to deliver improved outcomes with fewer resources, forming or joining a MAT has become an attractive option. However, merging academies into a MAT is not without its complexities and challenges.

Defining Academies and Multi-Academy Trusts

Firstly, it is important to clarify what academies and MATs are. Academies are state-funded schools in England which are directly funded by the Department for Education and independent of local authority control. A multi-academy trust is a single legal entity that governs multiple academies.

Governance and Leadership

The first major complexity arises from issues of governance and leadership. The consolidation of academies into a MAT involves an operational and cultural shift from managing one institution to overseeing multiple institutions. This requires a change in leadership strategy. The trust’s leaders will need to develop a multi-site approach, setting a strategic vision that aligns all the academies while respecting each institution’s unique context and needs.

Moreover, governance in a MAT is notably more complex. Instead of each academy having its own governing body, the MAT has a single board of trustees responsible for decision-making across all its academies. This shift can be challenging as it requires the dissolution of individual governing bodies and could potentially result in a loss of local accountability and representation.

Financial Management

The financial management of a MAT can be significantly more intricate than in individual academies. While the pooling of resources and budget can bring economies of scale and allow for more strategic allocation of resources, it can also introduce new financial risks. A financial deficit in one academy could potentially impact the others within the trust. It is therefore essential that robust financial controls and risk management strategies are in place.

Staffing and HR

Staffing represents another area of complexity. The workforce of the MAT is employed by the trust, rather than the individual academies, which necessitates central management of HR functions, including contracts, payroll, and pensions. Academies merging into a MAT need to consider potential issues such as harmonizing pay scales, managing staff workload and morale, and ensuring consistency in HR policies across the trust.

Legal and Compliance Issues

There are also numerous legal and compliance issues to navigate when academies merge into a MAT. These include due diligence processes, land and building transfers, amending funding agreements, and ensuring compliance with charity and company law. The process requires meticulous attention to detail and often, the expertise of legal professionals.


The process of merging academies into a multi-academy trust is a complex undertaking. It involves significant changes to governance, financial management, HR, and legal compliance. However, with careful planning and strategic implementation, the transition can result in a robust and cohesive educational organization that effectively serves its students and communities. As such, while the road to forming or joining a MAT can be complex, the potential benefits of shared resources, collaborative working, and enhanced educational provision make it an option worth considering for many academies.